VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS ASSOCIATED HEMOPHAGOCYTIC LYMPHOHISTIOCYTOSIS

ABSTRACT
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is caused by the dissemination of the
protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani throughout the reticuloendothelial
system. This systemic disease may mimic or lead to
several types of hematological disorders including hemophagocytic
lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Infection associated hemophagocytic
syndrome caused by Leishmania is very rare and difficult
to diagnose. Herein, we describe an infant with HLH associated
with VL. The severity of HLH secondary to visceral leishmaniasis
ranges from pure biological forms that resolve with antimicrobial
therapy to life-threatening emergencies that require specific
treatment. Our patient was treated with meglumine antimoniate.
The outcome of the disease was favorable with a follow-up of
12 months.
Key words: Leishmaniasis ▪ Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis

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