VBORNET Newsletter 8, special issue ‘SAND FLIES’, July 2010

CONTENTS
1. Phlebotominae sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae): Main vectors in Europe and their distribution with special emphasis for Turkey
2. The leishmaniasis in southern Europe
3. Public health importance and control of sand flies in continental Europe
4. Sand fly species as new vector candidates for Leishmania transmission in Europe
5. Sandfly bites, saliva and gut secretions: Could it contribute to disease control?
6. Transmission trends for Leishmania: what we know and what we can learn from Phlebotomus papatasi populations in endemic and non-endemic areas
7. Leishmania antimony resistance in the Mediterranean basin
8. Intraspecific variability of Phlebotomus sergenti, a vector of human cutaneous leishmaniasis, and its possible epidemiological implications
9. Updates on distribution of new sand fly fever viruses
10. Surveillance of Toscana virus in Europe: Studies on sand flies and clinicoepidemiological features of human TOSV infection
11. Effects of settlement and construction on transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis in dry habitats of the Old World
12. Distribution of Phlebotominae sand flies and visceral leishmaniasis in Albania
1. Phlebotominae sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae): Main vectors in Europe and their distribution with special emphasis for Turkey
B. Alten, Hacettepe University, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Ecology Division, ESRLaboratories, 06800, Beytepe-Ankara, TURKEY. kaynas@hacettepe.edu.tr Y. Ozbel, Ege University, Medical Faculty, Parasitology Department, Bornova-Izmir, TURKEY. yusuf.ozbel@ege.edu.tr
Insects of the family Psychodidae are realtively small (2 to 5 mm) and can be distinguished by the dense covering of long narrow scales on head, thorax, legs, and wing veins. Members of the subfamily Phlebotominae are delicate midges with relatively long legs and antennae, in contrast to the squatter and more robust appearance of the other psychodid flies. Moreover they differ by bearing piercing mouthparts allowing taking a bloodmeal. Currently, New World species (some 400 spp.) are classified into four genera (Brumptomyia, Hertigia, Lutzomyia, and Warileya) while Old World species (some 430 spp.) are into five (Austraophlebotomus, Chinius, Idiophlebotomus, Phlebotomus, and Sergentomyia) (Léger & Depaquit, 2002). The members of the genus Phlebotomus (94 spp.) show an important vector potential in the Old World, especially in the West Palearctic region. They are natural vectors of parasitic protozoa of the genus Leishmania (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae). Beside, they are also vectors of other human pathogens such as Bartonella and viruses including, for Europe, viruses belonging to the Phlebovirus genus (fam. Bunyaviridae) including Toscana, Sicilian and Naples sand fly fever viruses (Depaquit et al., 2010). In addition, less important viruses have also been reported from Europe: Chios virus was isolated from a human case of severe encephalitis in Greece, Corfou virus from Phlebotomus (Larroussius) neglectus in Greece, Massilia virus from P. (L.) perniciosus in France and Arbia virus from P. (L.) perniciosus and from P. (L.) perfiliewi in Italy. However, so far there are no reports of human disease related to these viruses, in contrast to the numerous reported outbreacks due to Phleboviruses (Depaquit et al., 2010). As identified during the ECDC-funded „V-borne‟ project („Assessment of magnitude and importance of vector-borne diseases in Europe‟), the following Mediterranean Phlebotomine vector species are identified as important for the transmission of leishmaniasis and sand fly

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