Evaluation of clinical and laboratory findings of adult visceral leishmaniasis cases.

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Mikrobiyol Bul. 2015 Oct;49(4):586-593.
[
[Article in Turkish]
Ural S1, Kaptan F, Sezak N, El S, Örmen B, Türker N, Demirdal T, Vardar İ, Özkan Çayıröz P, Çakalağaoğlu F.
Author information

1Izmir Katip Celebi University Atatürk Training and Research Hospital, Infectious Diseases Clinic, Izmir, Turkey. serapural@hotmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, kala-azar) is a zoonotic infection caused by Leishmania species which are transmitted to humans by the bites of infected female phlebotomine sandflies. Leishmania infantum is the responsible species of VL in Aegean, Mediterranean, and Central Anatolia regions of Turkey mainly observed sporadically in pediatric age groups. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and laboratory findings of adult patients with VL who were admitted to our hospital. A total of 10 patients (3 female, 7 male; age range: 18-67 years, mean age: 39.3 ± 16.51) followed in the infectious diseases clinic of the hospital between 2000 and 2013 were evaluated retrospectively. The diagnosis of VL was based on the presence of appropriate clinical and physical examination, as well as biochemical findings, positive serological test results (indirect fluorescent antibody test, and rK39 rapid antigen test) and/or detection of amastigote forms of parasite in the bone marrow aspiration samples. Of the cases three were diagnosed with both bone marrow and serology positivity, five with bone marrow positivity and one of each only with liver biopsy and positive serology result. Time interval from onset of the symptoms until the establishment of the specific clinical diagnosis was ranged from 2 to 12 weeks. The most frequent initial symptoms were fever, fatigue and abdominal distension. None of the patients had immunosupressive conditions such as HIV infection, corticosteroid use, immunosupressive treatment, or transplantation. All the patients were from Aegean region and six were living in rural areas. In all cases, hepatosplenomegaly, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, albumin/globulin ratio inversion, anemia, leukopenia and among nine cases trombocytopenia were detected. In one case acute renal failure has been developed before treatment and the patient was admitted to dialysis program. Bacterial superinfection occurred in two cases. Patients were treated with either meglumine antimonate (Glucantime®, 20 mg/kg/day, intramuscularly for 28 days) or liposomal amphotericin B (3 mg/kg/day, intravenously for the first 5 days, then on 14th and 21st days) according to the availability of drugs. During one year follow-up period all of the patients improved and no recurrence was seen in any patient. In conclusion, among adult patients with fever uncontrolled within 2-week course of ampiric antibiotic treatment without any infectious focus or malignancy, VL should also be considered.

PMID:
26649416
[PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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